Report On the State of the Environment In China
2007
Index
Preface
Reduction of the Total Amount of Major Pollutants
Water Environment
Marine Environment
Atmospheric Environment
Acoustic Environment
Solid Waste
Radiation Environment
Natural Ecology
Land and Rural Environment
Forest
Grassland
Climate and Natural Disasters
Environmental Management
 

General Situation
The country still suffered from serious surface water pollution. The seven major rivers were under intermediate pollution, rivers in Zhejiang Province and Fujian Province and southwest and northwest China enjoyed good water quality. Lakes had prominent eutrophication problems.
Rivers
The water quality of the seven major rivers, i.e., the Yangtze River, Yellow River, Pearl River, Songhua River, Huaihe River, Haihe River and Liaohe River remained the same as in the previous year. Among 407 monitored sections of 197 rivers, 49.9%, 26.5% and 23.6% had Grade I-III,
Grade IV-V, and worse-than-Grade V water quality respectively. Among others, the Pearl River and Yangtze River enjoyed good water quality, Songhua River was slightly polluted, Yellow River and Huaihe River were moderately polluted, and Liaohe River and Haihe River were under heavy pollution.

The Yangtze River Waters – The Yangtze River waters enjoyed good water quality on the whole. 81.5%, 3.9%, 7.8% and 6.8% of the 103 surface water sections under national monitoring program fell into Grade I-III, Grade IV, Grade V, or worse-than-Grade V standards. The major pollutants were ammonia nitrogen, oils, and BOD5.

The mainstream of the Yangtze River enjoyed excellent water quality, and compared with last year, there were no obvious change in water quality.

In general, the tributaries of the Yangtze River enjoyed good water quality, which turned better compared with that of the last year. The Yalong River, Dadu River, Jialing River, Wujiang River, Yuanjiang River, and Hanjiang River had excellent water quality. The Minjiang River, Tuojiang River, Xiangjiang River, and Ganjiang River had good water quality. However, the Minjiang River section in Meishan city was under heavy pollution, and the Tuojiang River section in Zigong city and Ganjiang River section in Nanchang city were under moderate pollution. The major pollutant was ammonia nitrogen.

The Yellow River Waters – The Yellow River waters were under moderate pollution. 63.7%, 9.1%, 4.5% and 22.7% of the 44 surface water sections under national monitoring program had water quality at Grade II-III, Grade IV, Grade V standards or worse-than Grade V standards respectively. The major pollutants were ammonia nitrogen, oils and BOD5.
The mainstream of Yellow River enjoyed excellent water quality, which turned better compared with that of the previous year. The river sections in Heze city of Shandong Province and Sanmenxia city of Henan Province were slightly polluted. Other sections enjoyed excellent or good water quality.
The tributaries of Yellow River were under heavy pollution, and no obvious changes were observed in water quality compared with in last year. Apart from the Yihe River, Luohe River, and Qinhe River, which enjoyed excellent or good water quality, other tributaries were generally badly polluted. Among others, the Xi'an section and Weinan section in the lower reaches of Weihe River, Xining section in the lower reaches of Huangshui River, Taiyuan, Linfen, and Yuncheng sections of Fenhe River, Weinan section of Beiluo River, and Yuncheng section of Sushui River were under heavy pollution.

The Pearl River Waters – In general, the Pearl River waters had good water quality. 81.8%, 15.2% and 3.0% of the 33 surface water sections under national monitoring program had water quality at Grade I-III, Grade IV, or worse-than Grade V respectively. The major pollutants were oils, dissolved oxygen and ammonia nitrogen.

In general, the mainstream of the Pearl River enjoyed good water quality with no obvious change compared with that of the last year. Guangzhou section of the Pearl River was under slight pollution.

The tributaries of Pearl River had good water quality in general with no obvious change as compared with that of 2006. But the Shenzhen River was badly polluted.

Of the rivers in Hainan Island, the Wanquan River enjoyed excellent water quality, and Haidian Brook was under slight pollution. The major pollutant was oils. Compared with last year, no obvious change was observed in water quality.

The Songhua River Waters - In general, the Songhua River waters were under slight pollution. 23.8%, 52.4%, 4.8% and 19.0% of the 42 surface water sections under national monitoring program had water quality at Grade I-III, Grade IV, Grade V, or worse-than Grade V respectively. The major pollutants were permanganate index, oils and BOD5.

The mainstream of the Songhua River was slightly polluted with no obvious change in water quality as compared with that of 2006.

The tributaries of Songhua River were under moderate pollution with water quality turning better as compared with that of the last year.


The Huaihe River Waters – The Huaihe River waters were under moderate pollution in general. 25.6%, 39.5%, 9.3% and 25.6% of the 86 surface water sections under national monitoring program had water quality at Grade II-III, Grade IV, Grade V, or worse-than Grade V respectively. The major pollutants were permanganate index, BOD5 and ammonia nitrogen.
The mainstream of Huaihe River was under slight pollution with some degradation in water quality as compared with that of 2006.
In general, the tributaries of the Huaihe River were under moderate pollution with no obvious change in water quality as compared with that of 2006. Among the main primary tributaries, the Shiguan River enjoyed excellent water quality, Xifei River and Huanghe River had good water quality; Honghe River, Tuohe River, Shihe River, and Kuaihe River were slightly polluted, and Wohe River and Yinghe River were under heavy pollution. The Yihe River, Shuhe River and Sihe River waters were under moderate pollution at large.

 

The Haihe River Waters – In general, the Haihe River waters were under heavy pollution. Among 62 surface water sections under national monitoring program, 25.9% was at Grade I-III water quality, 9.7% at Grade IV, 11.3% at Grade V, and 53.1% was worse than Grade V. The major pollutants were ammonia nitrogen, permanganate index and BOD5.
In general, the mainstream of Haihe River was under heavy pollution with no obvious change in water quality as compared with that of the last year.
Other main rivers of the Haihe River waters were also badly polluted with no obvious change in water quality as compared with that of the last year. The Yongding River and Luanhe River enjoyed good water quality. Beiyun River, Zhangweixin River, Dasha River, Ziya River, Majia River and Tuhai River suffered from heavy pollution.

The Liaohe River Waters – In general, the Liaohe River waters suffered from heavy pollution. Among 37 surface water sections under national monitoring program, 43.2% of them had water quality at Grade II-III, 10.8% at Grade IV, 5.5% at Grade V, and 40.5% was worse than Grade V. The major pollutants were ammonia nitrogen, BOD5 and permanganate index.
The mainstream of Liaohe River was unbder moderate pollution in general. The Laoha River, Xiliao River and Dongliao River enjoyed good water quality, but the Liaohe River was under heavy pollution. Compared with that of the last year, Xiliao River and Dongliao River had better water quality. But there was no obvious change in water quality of the Laoha River and Liaohe River.

In general, the tributaries of Liaohe River suffered from heavy pollution. However, the Xilamulun River was under slight pollution, and Tiaozi River and Zhaosutai River were badly polluted. No obvious change occurred in water quality compared with that of the previous year.

The Daliao River and its tributaries were badly polluted in general with no obvious change in water quality compared with that of 2006. The Daling River was also under heavy pollution. The major pollutants were ammonia nitrogen, permanganate index and BOD5.

The Rivers in Zhejiang Province and Fujian Province – In general, rivers in Zhejiang Province and Fujian Province enjoyed good water quality. 78.2% of the 32 surface water sections under national monitoring program were at Grade I-III water quality, and 21.8% of them at Grade IV. The major pollutants were oils, ammonia nitrogen and BOD5.

Rivers in Southwest China – In general, rivers in Southwest China enjoyed good water quality. Among 17 surface water sections under national monitoring program, 82.4% of them had water quality at Grade I-III, 11.7% of them at Grade IV-V and 5.9% was worse than Grade V. The major pollutants were lead, permanganate index and oils.

Rivers in Northwest China - Rivers in Northwest China enjoyed good water quality in general. Among 28 surface water sections under national monitoring program, 82.1% had water quality at Grade I-III, 14.3% at Grade IV, and 3.6% was worse than Grade V. The major pollutant was ammonia nitrogen.

Rivers in Northwest China - Rivers in Northwest China enjoyed good water quality in general. Among 28 surface water sections under national monitoring program, 82.1% had water quality at Grade I-III, 14.3% at Grade IV, and 3.6% was worse than Grade V. The major pollutant was ammonia nitrogen.

Lakes (Reserviors)
Among the 28 major lakes (reservoirs) under national monitoring program, two had Grade II water quality, accounting for 7.1%; six had Grade III water quality, accounting for 21.4%; four had Grade IV water quality, accounting for 14.3%; five had Grade V water quality, accounting for 17.9%; and 11 had water quality worse than Grade V, accounting for 39.3%. The major pollutants were total nitrogen and total phosphorus. Among the 26 monitored lakes (reservoirs), two suffered from heavy eutrophication, taking up 7.7%; three suffered from moderate eutrophication, taking up 11.5% and nine experienced mild eutrophication, taking up 34.6%.

Taihu Lake - The overall water quality of Taihu Lake was worse than Grade V. Among 21 sites under national monitoring program, 23.8% had Grade IV water quality, 19.0% had Grade V water quality, and 57.2% had water quality worse than Grade V. Its water quality turned better compared with that of the previous year. 


The proportion of waters having water quality worse than Grade V decreased by 28 percentage points. The lake was under moderate eutrophication with major pollutant being total nitrogen.

The rivers surrounding the Taihu Lake were moderately polluted with no obvious change in water quality compared with that of the last year. The major pollutants were ammonia nitrogen, BOD5 and oils.

Dianchi Lake -The overall water quality of Dianchi Lake was worse than Grade V. Caohai Lake suffered from serious eutrophication with Waihai Lake under moderate eutrophication. The major pollutants were total nitrogen, total phosphorus and permanganate index.

Rivers surrounding the Dianchi Lake were badly polluted. Among the eight surface water sections under the national monitoring program, 25.0% had Grade II-III water quality, 12.5% had Grade IV water quality and 62.5% had water quality worse than Grade V. There was no obvious change in water quality compared with that of the last year. The major pollutants were BOD5, ammonia, nitrogen and permanganate index.

Proportions of Different Water Quality of Rivers Surrounding Dianchi Lake


Chaohu Lake – In general, Chaohu Lake had Grade V water quality with no obvious change as compared with that of 2006. The western part of the Lake suffered from moderate eutrophication and the east part mild eutrophication. The major pollutants were total phosphorus, total nitrogen and BOD5.

Rivers surrounding the Chaohu Lake were under heavy pollution. Among 12 surface water sections under national monitoring program (including two sections for the control of the pollutant bearing capacity), 8.3% had Grade II water quality, 41.7% of them had Grade IV water quality and 50.0% had water quality worse than Grade V. The major pollutants were oils, ammonia nitrogen and BOD5.

 

Other large freshwater lakes - Among the ten major freshwater lakes under national monitoring program, the Bositeng Lake and Erhai Lake had Grade III water quality; Jingbo Lake, Dongting Lake, Poyang Lake and Xingkai Lake had Grade IV water quality; Nansi Lake had Grade V water quality; Baiyangdian Lake, Dalai Lake and Hongze Lake had water quality worse than Grade V. Compared with that of the last year, Nansi Lake, Dongting Lake and Poyang Lake saw better water quality, and other large freshwater lakes had no obvious changes in water quality. The major pollutants were total nitrogen and total phosphorus.

The Erhai Lake, Poyang Lake and Dongting Lake were under mesotrophic state; Nansi Lake, Hongze Lake, Bositeng Lake and Jingbo Lake had mild eutrophication; Dalai Lake had moderate eutrophication and Baiyangdian Lake suffered from serious eutrophication.

Water Quality of Major Large Freshwater Lakes

Name

Index for nutrition state

 

Nutrition state

Levels of water quality

Major pollutants

2007

2006

Baiyangdian Lake

83

Serious eutrophication

Worse than

Grade V

Worse than

Grade V

Ammnonia nitrogen, total phosporus, total nitrogen

Dalai Lake

64

Moderate eutrophication

Worse than

Grade V

Worse than

Grade V

pH value, permanganate index

Jingbo Lake

59

Mild eutrophication

IV

IV

Volatile phenol, total phosphorus

Bositeng Lake

57

Mild eutrophication

III

III

-

Hongze Lake

56

Mild eutrophication

Worse than

Grade V

Worse than

Grade V

Total nitrogen,toal phosphor

Nansi Lake

53

Mild euthrophication

V

Worse than

Grade V

Total phosphorus,total nitrogen, oils

Dongting Lake

45

Mesotrophic state

IV

V

Total phosphorus, total nitrogen

Poyang Lake

45

Mesotrophic state

IV

V

Total phosphorus, total nitrogen

Erhai Lake

40

Mesotrophic state

III

III

-

Xingkai Lake

-

-

IV

II

Volatile phenol

Lakes in cities – The Kunming Lake (Beijing) had Grade III water quality, Xihu Lake (Hangzhou), Donghu Lake (Wuhan), Xuanwu Lake (Nanjing) and Daming Lake (Jinan) had water quality worse than Grade V. There was no obvious change in water quality compared with that of the last year. The major pollutants were total nitrogen and total phosphorus.
The Kunming Lake was undere mesotrophic state. Xuanwu Lake, Xihu Lake and Daming Lake suffered from mild eutrophication, and Donghu Lake was under moderate eutrophication.

Evaluation Results of the Water Quality of Lakes in Cities

Name

Index for nutrition state

Nutrition state

Levels of water quality

Major pollutants

2007

2006

Donghu Lake

65

Moderate eutrophication

Worse than

Grade V

Worse than

Grade V

Total phosphorus, total nitrogen

Daming Lake

56

Mild eutrophication

Worse than

Grade V

Worse than

Grade V

Total nitrogen, BOD

Xuanwu Lake

55

Mild eutrophication

Worse than

Grade V

Worse than

Grade V

Total nitrogen, total phosphorus

Xihu Lake

55

Mild eutrophication

Worse than

Grade V

Worse than

Grade V

Total nitrogen, total phosphorus

Kunming Lake

47

Mesotrophic state

III

III

Large reservoirs - Compared with that of the last year, Dahuofang Reservoir and Miyun Reservoir had better water quality and Yuqiao Reservoir had worse quality. Other seven major reservoirs experienced no obvious change in water quality. The major pollutant was total nitrogen.
Dahuofang Reservoir had mild eutrophication and eight large reservoirs including Yuqiao Reservoir were under mesotrophic state.

Evaluation Results of the Water Quality of Large Reservoirs

Name

Index for nutrition state

Nutrition state

Levels of water quality

Main pollutants

2007

2006

Dahuofang Reservoir

54

Mild eutrophication

V

Worse than

Grade V

Total nitrogen

Yuqiao Reservoir

48

Mesotrophic state

V

IV

Total nitrogen

Danjiangkou Reservoir

47

Mesotrophic state

III

III

-

Laoshan Reservoir

47

Mesotrophic state

Worse than

Grade V

Worse than

Grade V

Total nitrogen

Songhua Lake

44

Mesotrophic state

V

V

Total nitrogen

Dongpu Reservoir

43

Mesotrophic state

III

III

-

Menlou Reservoir

42

Mesotrophic state

Worse than

Grade V

Worse than

Grade V

Total nitrogen

Miyun Reservoir

32

Mesotrophic state

II

III

-

Qiandao Lake

32

Mesotrophic state

III

III

-

Shimen Reservoir

-

-

II

II

-

Groundwater
Compared with last year, groundwater tables in the sites under national monitoring program remained stable, and deep-layer groundwater tables changed more than lower-layer tables. Groundwater quality in major sites of the monitored areas ranged from good to poor. The quality of deep-layer groundwater was better than that of shallow-layer groundwater, and the quality of groundwater in areas with lower groundwater exploitation level was better than areas with higher level exploitation.
Groundwater table - According to the monitoring results of groundwater tables in 169 cities, groundwater tables in monitored areas did not fluctuate much and remained stable at large compared with that of 2006 with bigger change of deep-layer groundwater table than that of shallow-layer. The areas with obvious change in groundwater tables were mainly concentrated in the North, Northeast, Northwest and East China, where more groundwater was exploited. Among others, East China had obvious rise in the groundwater table due to rainfall and the policy of sealing wells and limiting the exploitation of groundwater resources. However, groundwater in North, Northeast and Northwest China still had high development intensity with the decline of groundwater table in most areas.
Among the 148 cities under shallow-layer groundwater table monitoring program, 25 of them witnessed rising trend in their water tables, 98 of them were stable and 25 had declining trend compared with that of the previous year.
Among the 71 cities under deep-layer groundwater table monitoring program, 10 of them had rising water tables, 40 of them were stable and 21 had declining water tables  compared with that of the previous year.
Groundwater quality - According to the monitoring data of the groundwater quality in 189 cities, groundwater quality in major sites of the monitored areas ranged from good to relatively poor. The quality of deep-layer groundwater was better than that of shallow layer, and the quality of groundwater in areas with less groundwater exploitation was better than areas with intensive exploitation. The overall groundwater quality across China did not change much compared with in 2006, and areas with deteriorating water quality were mainly distributed in North, Northeast, and Northwest China. Areas with improving groundwater quality were sparsely distributed.
Among the 159 cities under shallow-layer groundwater quality monitoring program, 16 of them had deteriorating trend of the groundwater quality in major monitoring sites, 137 were stable and six were improved compared with that of the last year.
Among the 76 cities under deep-layer groundwater quality monitoring program, four of them witnessed the groundwater quality in major monitoring sites deteriorating, 68 remained stable and four had improvement compared with that of the last year.
Groundwater drawdown funnel - There were 212 regional groundwater drawdown funnels across the country. Among them, 136 were shallow drawdown funnels, 65 were deep drawdown funnels and 11 were karst drawdown funnels. Compared with last year, groundwater drawdown funnel situation remained stable, and the funnels experiencing obvious change were mainly distributed in North and East China, where were seriously affected by groundwater exploitation.
Major Water Conservancy Projects
The Three Gorges Reservoir Area
– The Three Gorges Reservoir area enjoyed excellent water quality. All the six sections under national monitoring program in the reservoir area had water quality ranging from Grade I to Grade III. Among others, Cuntan section, Shaiwangba section and Peishi section of the Yangtze River enjoyed Grade I or II water quality; Qingxichang section of the Yangtze River, Daxigou section of the Jialing River and Maliuzui section of the Wujiang River had Grade II or III water quality. No obvious changes were observed in water quality compared with that of the last year.
Waters along the East Line of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project - Waters along the East Line of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project were under moderate pollution in general. Among the ten sections under national monitoring program, 30% had Grade II-III water quality, 40% had Grade IV-V water quality, and 30% had water quality worse than Grade V. No obvious change was observed in water quality compared with that of the last year. The major pollutants were permanganate index, BOD5 and ammonia nitrogen.
Amount of the discharge of wastewater and major pollutants
In 2007, the total amount of wastewater discharged was 55.67 billion tons, up by 3.7% than the previous year; COD emission was 13.818 million tons, down by 3.2% than the previous year. The discharge of ammonia nitrogen was 1.323 million tons, down by 6.4% compared with that of the last year.

Amount of Wastewater and Major Pollutants Discharged in China during the Past Three Years

Item

 

 

 

Year

Wastewater discharged

(billion tons)

COD emissions

 (10,000 tons)

Ammonia nitrogen discharge

(10,000 tons)

Total

From industrial source

From Domestic source

Total

From industrial source

From Domestic source

Total

From industrial source

From Domestic source

2005

524.5

243.1

281.4

1414.2

554.8

859.4

149.8

52.5

97.3

2006

536.8

240.2

296.6

1428.2

542.3

885.9

141.3

42.5

98.8

2007

556.7

246.5

310.2

1381.8

 

 

132.3

34.0

98.3

Measures and Actions
Initiating the Major S&T Projects on the Control and Treatment of Pollution of Water Bodies】In order to increase the inputs in environmental science and technology and enhance the staying power of the environmental cause, the State took the project of "control and treatment of pollution of water bodies" (hereinafter referred to as Water Project) as one of the 16 national major science and technology projects. The project, included in the Outline of the National Plan for Medium- and Long-term Scientific and Technological Development (2006-2020), aimed to provide scientific and technological support to achieving the target of 10% reduction of the discharge of major pollutants during the 11th Five-Year Plan period and rehabilitating the rivers, lakes and seas that cannot bear any pollution load, and solve water pollution problem, a major bottleneck restraining economic and social development of China.
On December 26, 2007, Premier Wen Jiabao chaired the standing meeting of the State Council, which adopted the implementation plan for Water Project. Water Project included 33 projects targeting at the following six topics, that is, control and treatment of eutrophication of lakes; integrated treatment of water environment of rivers; control of water pollution and urban water environment; guarantee of safe drinking water; monitoring, early warning and integrated management of water environment of river basins; and strategies, policies and management of water environment. Focusing on the studies of the "three rivers" (the Huaihe River, Haihe River and Liaohe River), "three lakes" (Taihu Lake, Chaohu Lake and Dianchi Lake), "one large river" (the Songhua River) and "one reservoir" (the Three Gorges Reservoir), the Water Project will integrate key technologies on the control of pollutant sources and ecological restoration, make breakthroughs in the protection of drinking water sources and guarantee of safe drinking water, and make innovations in the monitoring and early warning technologies as well as policy management mechanism for water quality in river basins. The State will invest more than 30 billion yuan in the Water Project, which, according to the principle of making steady progress, will be implemented in three stages over the neat 13 years, in order to establish two technological systems that comply with our national conditions, that is, the monitoring and early warning technology for the prevention and control of water pollution and the water pollution control system, which facilitates the development of national technical platform for comprehensive management of water environment.
Implementing the policy of "regional banning EIA approval of new projects in areas with excessive environmental load"】In early 2007, targeting on a number of construction projects in the iron & steel, power and metallurgy industries which seriously violated the environmental impact assessment regulations and the "three simultaneities" system, the former State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) carried out "regional banning EIA approval of new projects in areas with excessive environmental load (hereinafter referred to as 'regional banning')" for all construction projects in Tangshan city of Hebei Province, Lvliang city of Shanxi Province, Laiwu city of Shandong Province and Liupanshui city of Guizhou Province as well as Datang International Power Generation Co., Ltd., China Huaneng Group, China Huadian Corporation and China Guodian Corporation. On July 3, 2007, SEPA also carried out 'watershed banning' policy in six cities (Baiyin, Bayannaoer, Weinan, Zhoukou, Bengbu, and Chaohu), two counties or county-level cities (Hejin, Xiangfen) and five zones (Lanzhou High-tech Development Zone, Handan Economic Development Zone, Puyang Economic Development Zone of Henan Province, Shenxian Industrial Park of Shandong Province, and Wuhu Economic Development Zone) in the Yellow River basins, Huaihe River basins, Haihe River basins and Anhui section of the Yangtze River, which had heavy water pollution and serious environmental infringements. With the implementation of 'watershed banning' policy, a total of 1,162 construction projects were sorted out. Among them, 400 were shut down, 249 suspended production for correction, and 102 were ordered to complete pollution control within a given period of time. Focusing on addressing serious environmental problems within a region, 'regional banning' has not only solved a group of prominent environmental problems but also promoted economic restructuring and transformation of the growth pattern in the region.
Carrying out China-Russia joint monitoring program】 To enhance China-Russia joint monitoring is the embody to intensify environmental regulation over cross-border rivers and display the image of a responsible country. As arranged by the Environment Subcommittee under the Committee for China-Russia Premiers' Regular Meeting and according to the Plan for China-Russia Joint Monitoring of the Quality of Cross-border Water Bodies and the 2007 Implementation Plan for Joint Monitoring of the Quality of Cross-border Water Bodies that were developed by both sides, the two countries monitored in June and August 2007 respectively cross-border water bodies including Argun River, Heilongjiang River, Ussuri River, Suifen River, and Xingkai Lake. The monitoring results were recognized by both sides.
Developing the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for Major River Basins】The State Council wrote instructions and approved the plan for prevention and control of pollution in the Songhua River basins, Danjiangkou Reservoir and its upper reaches, developed plans for the prevention and control of pollution in major river basins including the "three rivers and three lakes", the Three Gorges Reservoir area and the mid and upper reaches of the Yellow River. With the implementation of environmental control of major river basins and regions, the authority carried out the idea of "making progress in all sectors and making breakthrough in priority areas" in terms of environmental management and pollution treatment. It is expected that by 2010, all centralized drinking water sources in the six major river basins including the Huaihe River, Haihe River, Liaohe River, Chaohu Lake, Dianchi Lake basins and the mid and upper reaches of the Yellow River will be treated and protected, the water quality of trans-province boundary sections will enjoy remarkable improvement. All major industrial enterprises will meet pollution discharged standards in an all round way. Higher percent of urban sewage will be treated. The total discharge amount of water pollutants will be under effective control. The capacity in supervising water environment and the capacity in early warning of and emergency response to water pollution accidents will enjoy obviously improvement. Plans for major river basins are the basis for the prevention and control of their water pollution, and the economic activities of these river basins must comply with such plans.
Rehabilitating rivers and lakes】The practice of rehabilitation is the important experience in Chinese history to make the country prosperous and stable and  embodies the care for water environment. Rehabilitating rivers and lakes means exercising the strictest system for controlling the total amount of pollutants, and identifying the development pattern and scale according to the capacity of water environment; showing respect for the law of nature, giving full play to the self-restoration capacity of the water ecological system, and gradually curbing the ecological degradation; applying engineering, technical and ecological approaches, intensifying the efforts in the control of water environment in order to promote water ecological system entering a benign circle; fully using legal, economic and necessary administrative approaches, imposing strong pressure by discharging pollutants strictly following standards and conducting development activities in a rational way, creating initiatives to treat water environment, and solving longstanding environmental problems with effective methods.
Rehabilitating rivers and lakes is a process to treat water environment in an all-round way, and also a process of sound economic and social development. The policy of rehabilitation means promoting the change of economic development mode and following the path towards scientific development; promoting the development of environmental infrastructure and resolutely controlling the total amount of pollutants; respecting for the law of nature, treating water environment and pollution with humanism, and arousing public awareness to cherish water resources and protect water environment. With such measures as strict environmental access to new projects, phasing out outdated production capacity, preventing and controlling pollution in an all-round way, intensifying the comprehensive measures, and encouraging public participation, the State will obviously improve the quality of water environment of rivers and lakes, enable the ecological system of some rivers and lakes to form a benign circle, and lay a solid foundation for a comprehensive, coordinated, and sustainable development with the efforts of the next twenty years or more.